Almasa Dizdarevic Almasa Dizdarevic

TP 7: Dilemmas
Intermediate level


In this lesson, students learn about could have, should have, would have through guided discovery based on listening about the journey of one experienced rower. The lesson starts with a short text about the two main characters. This is followed by gist and then detailed listening where students answer the questions about the rowers adventure. Students will also practise reading and speaking by choosing the statements related to the listening that they agree with.


Abc Reading handout
Abc Rowing picture
Abc Questions handout
Abc Statements handout
Abc Language analysis handout
Abc Gap Fill Handout
Abc Role play cards

Main Aims

  • To teach students past modals could have, should have, would have through guided discovery in the context of decision making done by two experienced rowers, past decisions and possibilities.

Subsidiary Aims

  • To listen for gist and detail in the context of rowing adventure.
  • To speak about past possibilities and regrets.


Lead In (2-4 minutes) • To set the context for the listening activity

T announces that today she wants to share with them an incredible story. T shows a picture of rowing boat in the sea. CCQs: What do you see here? Is there a boat? Yes. Are there people on the boat? Yes. Is the boat in the river? No. Where could it be? In the sea/ ocean. Are there waves? Yes. Is it dangerous? Yes. Does it look hard? Yes. Do you know what they are doing? Yes./ No. T drills the word row. Writes it on the board. Asks for stress. (one syllable!) T asks how people who row are called. Drills the words row and rower. Writes rOwer on the WB. Marks the stress.

Reading for gist (3-4 minutes) • To introduce the students with the characters for the following listening activity.

T gives them handouts with the text about Debra and Andrew. Before reading: read the questions. 1. Why was their journey challenging? 2. Something went wrong in the middle of Atlantic. Can you guess what? Ss' own answers. They read the text. After reading: T asks the questions. T elicits what could go wrong in the middle of the ocean. (storm, sharks, collision...) Ss share their own ideas. For the 2. question

Listening for gist (3-4 minutes) • To listen to the first part of the story and think about the questions

Before listening: T tells Ss to pay attention to two important things: 1. What experience did Debra and Andrew have of rowing? 2. What was the problem? Answers: 1. Andrew was very experienced and had won national competitions. Debra learned to row a year ago./ 2. Andrew suffered from fear of the ocean. Students listen and check answers in pairs. (1:44min)

Listening for more information (3-4 minutes) • To listen to the second part of the story and answer the questions.

Before listening: T gives them handouts with questions. Students listen to the second part of the text and answer the questions. T monitors carefully to see if it's necessary to play the recording again. (Rec: 2:14) Ss check their answers in pairs and then in groups.

Speaking: Which statement do you agree with? (5-7 minutes) • To expose students to target language.

Ss work in groups. They read what some people said about Andrew and Debra Veal. They decide which one they agree with. CCQs: A. Did he leave his wife alone? Yes. Did she die? No. B. Was Andrew able to make Debra stay? No. Did he try? No. C. Did she give up her journey? No.

Discovery: Target language meaning, form, and use. (10-12 minutes) • To guide students into discovery of language meaning, form, and use

T gives handouts with language analysis. Students choose and circle or highlight the correct answers. 1. She could have died out there. Answer: past/ C 2. He shouldn't have left her. Answer: past/ B 3. He would have been responsible. Answer: past/an imaginary situation Function and use answers: 1. a, 2. b, 3. a Students circle and tick the correct alternatives and best explanations. They fill in the gaps with the correct form. Students check all the answers in pairs before they share them with the rest of the class.

Controlled practice: Fill In the Gaps (10-12 minutes) • To have students practise meaning and form of past modals

Ss are given handouts with extra facts and opinions about the story of Andrew and Debra Veal. They complete them with could have, should(n't) have, would(n't) have. They work in pairs, check their answer. Then they listen to recording to check their answers. (Rec: 1:22)

Pronunciation of short forms (2-3 minutes) • To have students pronounce short forms in a natural way.

Teacher uses fingers to demonstrate how the short forms are pronounced: could+have--> could've; should + have --> should've; should not have --> shouldn't have, would + have --> would've. Drill.

Speaking: Role Play (5-10 minutes) • To have students use target language in speaking.

Students are divided into A and B roles. 'A' students get a slip of paper with context, student 'B' use target language to give their opinions. eg. A: My birthday cake was not very delicious. B: You should have add more sugar. When they finish, Ss switch roles. Delayed correction!

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